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Synergistic use of glycomics and single-molecule molecular inversion probes for identification of congenital disorders of glycosylation type-1

Congenital disorders of glycosylation type 1 (CDG-I) comprise a group of 27 genetic defects with heterogeneous multisystem phenotype, mostly presenting with nonspecific neurological symptoms. The biochemical hallmark of CDG-I is a partial absence of complete N-glycans on transferrin. However, recent findings of a diagnostic N-tetrasaccharide for ALG1-CDG and increased high-mannose N-glycans for a few other CDG suggested the potential of glycan structural analysis for CDG-I gene discovery. We analyzed the relative abundance of total plasma N-glycans by high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in a large cohort of 111 CDG-I patients with known (n = 75) or unsolved (n = 36) genetic cause.