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Stroke and stroke-like episodes in inborn errors of metabolism: Pathophysiological and clinical implications

Inborn errors of metabolism causing stroke (ischemic or haemorrhagic) or stroke-like episodes (e.g., that are also called “metabolic strokes” and include acute brain lesions not related with alterations of blood flow) cover a wide range of diseases in which acute metabolic decompensations after trigger events (e.g., fever, dehydration, sepsis etc.) may have a variable frequency. […] This review summarized the main clinical features and the pathophysiological mechanisms of stroke and stroke-like episodes in inborn errors of metabolism presenting with stroke as part of natural history of the disease. These conditions belong to different etiological groups, such as organic acidurias, mitochondrial encephalopathies, homocystinuria and remethylation disorders, urea cycle disorders, lysosomal diseases (e.g. Fabry disease, glycogen storage disease), congenital disorders of glycosylation, neurotransmitter disorders, adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency and few other neurometabolic disorders.