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Split but merge: Golgi fragmentation in physiological and pathological conditions

The Golgi complex is a highly dynamic and tightly regulated cellular organelle with essential roles in the processing as well as the sorting of proteins and lipids. Its structure undergoes rapid disassembly and reassembly during normal physiological processes, including cell division, migration, polarization, differentiation, and cell death. Golgi dispersal or fragmentation also occurs in pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, infectious diseases, congenital disorders of glycosylation diseases, and cancer. In this review, current knowledge about both structural organization and morphological alterations in the Golgi in physiological and pathological conditions is summarized together with the methodologies that help to reveal its structure.