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Spectrum of Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome 3 (MCAHS3) Due to Phosphatidylinositol Glycan Biosynthesis Class T (PIGT) Gene Mutations: A Narrative Review

Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 3 (MCAHS3) results from mutations in the phosphatidylinositol glycan biosynthesis class T (PIGT) gene leading to defects in glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase complex (GPI-TA) synthesis. [..] Mutations in the PIGT gene result in disruption of this extremely important post-translational protein modification, yielding dysfunctional proteins leading to MCAHS3. An exhaustive literature search was conducted across various electronic databases to reveal only 41 reported cases of MCAHS3 worldwide, emphasizing the rarity of this condition. […] This review aims to highlight the constellation of clinical symptoms, diagnostic modalities, and management challenges associated with MCAHS3 cases.