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PIGO-CDG: A case study with a new genotype, expansion of the phenotype, literature review, and nosological considerations

The phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class O protein (PIGO) enzyme is an important step in the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI), which is essential for the membrane anchoring of several proteins. Bi-allelic pathogenic variants in PIGO lead to a congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG) characterized by global developmental delay, an increase in serum alkaline phosphatase levels, congenital anomalies including anorectal, genitourinary, and limb malformations in most patients; this phenotype has been alternately called “Mabry syndrome” or “hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome 2.” We report a 22-month-old female with PIGO deficiency caused by novel PIGO variants.