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Novel insights into the phenotype and long-term D-gal treatment in PGM1-CDG: a case series

Phosphoglucomutase-1-congenital disorder of glycosylation (PGM1-CDG) (OMIM: 614921) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disease caused by the deficiency of the PGM1 enzyme. Like other CDGs, PGM1-CDG has a multisystemic presentation. The most common clinical findings include liver involvement, rhabdomyolysis, hypoglycemia, and cardiac involvement. Phenotypic severity can vary, though cardiac presentation is usually part of the most severe phenotype, often resulting in early death. Unlike the majority of CDGs, PGM1-CDG has a treatment: oral D-galactose (D-gal) supplementation, which significantly improves many aspects of the disorder. Here, we describe five PGM1-CDG patients treated with D-gal and report both on novel clinical symptoms in PGM1-CDG as well as the effects of the D-gal treatment.