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NGLY1 Deficiency, a Congenital Disorder of Deglycosylation: From Disease Gene Function to Pathophysiology

N-Glycanase 1 (NGLY1) is a cytosolic enzyme involved in removing N-linked glycans of misfolded N-glycoproteins and is considered to be a component of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). The 2012 identification of recessive NGLY1 mutations in a rare multisystem disorder has led to intense research efforts on the roles of NGLY1 in animal development and physiology, as well as the pathophysiology of NGLY1 deficiency. Here, we present a review of the NGLY1-deficient patient phenotypes, along with insights into the function of this gene from studies in rodent and invertebrate animal models, as well as cell culture and biochemical experiments.