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Metabolic etiologies in children with infantile epileptic spasm syndrome: Experience at a tertiary pediatric neurology center

This study, conducted at a tertiary pediatric neurology center, explored the prevalence and clinical features of inborn errors of metabolism in 112 children with IESS over 10 years. […] ost patients presented with seizures, primarily flexor spasms, and the median age at onset was 5 months. Comprehensive clinical evaluation and neuroimaging revealed structural-acquired causes as the most common etiology. Notably, inborn errors of metabolism were identified in 5.4 % of cases, with six distinct diagnoses including nonketotic hyperglycinemia, pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy, primary coenzyme Q10 deficiency 7, congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIM, 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase deficiency, and argininosuccinate lyase deficiency.