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Metabolic adaptation of human skin fibroblasts to ER stress caused by glycosylation defect in PMM2-CDG

PMM2-CDG is the most prevalent type of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). It is caused by pathogenic variants in the gene encoding phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2), which converts mannose-6-phosphate to mannose-1-phosphate and thus activates this saccharide for further glycosylation processes. Defective glycosylation can lead to an abnormal accumulation of unfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cause its stress. The ER is a key compartment for glycosylation, and its connection and communication with mitochondria has been described extensively in literature. Their crosstalk is important for cell proliferation, calcium homeostasis, apoptosis, mitochondrial fission regulation, bioenergetics, autophagy, lipid metabolism, inflammasome formation and unfolded protein response. Therefore, in the present study we posed a question, whether defective glycosylation leads to bioenergetic disruption. Our data reveal possible chronic stress in ER and activated unfolded protein response via PERK pathway in PMM2-CDG fibroblasts.