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In Vitro Skeletal Muscle Model of PGM1 Deficiency Reveals Altered Energy Homeostasis

Phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1) is a key enzyme for the regulation of energy metabolism from glycogen and glycolysis, as it catalyzes the interconversion of glucose 1-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate. PGM1 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a highly heterogenous clinical spectrum, including hypoglycemia, cleft palate, liver dysfunction, growth delay, exercise intolerance, and dilated cardiomyopathy. Abnormal protein glycosylation has been observed in this disease. Oral supplementation with D-galactose efficiently restores protein glycosylation by replenishing the lacking pool of UDP-galactose, and rescues some symptoms, such as hypoglycemia, hepatopathy, and growth delay. However, D-galactose effects on skeletal muscle and heart symptoms remain unclear. In this study, we established an in vitro muscle model for PGM1 deficiency to investigate the role of PGM1 and the effect of D-galactose on nucleotide sugars and energy metabolism.