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Impaired catabolism of free oligosaccharides due to MAN2C1 variants causes a neurodevelopmental disorder

Free oligosaccharides (fOSs) are soluble oligosaccharide species generated during N-glycosylation of proteins. Although little is known about fOS metabolism, the recent identification of NGLY1 deficiency, a congenital disorder of deglycosylation (CDDG) caused by loss of function of an enzyme involved in fOS metabolism, has elicited increased interest in fOS processing. The catabolism of fOSs has been linked to the activity of a specific cytosolic mannosidase, MAN2C1, which cleaves α1,2-, α1,3-, and α1,6-mannose residues. In this study, we report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular features of six individuals, including two fetuses, with bi-allelic pathogenic variants in MAN2C1; the individuals are from four different families. These individuals exhibit dysmorphic facial features, congenital anomalies such as tongue hamartoma, variable degrees of intellectual disability, and brain anomalies including polymicrogyria, interhemispheric cysts, hypothalamic hamartoma, callosal anomalies, and hypoplasia of brainstem and cerebellar vermis. Complementation experiments with isogenic MAN2C1-KO HAP1 cells confirm the pathogenicity of three of the identified MAN2C1 variants.