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“Hide and seek”: Misleading transferrin variants in PMM2-CDG complicate diagnostics

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are one of the fastest growing groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Despite the availability of next-generation sequencing techniques and advanced methods for evaluation of glycosylation, CDG screening mainly relies on the analysis of serum transferrin (Tf) by isoelectric focusing, HPLC or capillary electrophoresis. The main pitfall of this screening method is the presence of Tf protein variants within the general population. Although reports describe the role of Tf variants leading to falsely abnormal results, their significance in confounding diagnosis in patients with CDG has not been documented so far. Here, we describe two PMM2-CDG cases, in which Tf variants complicated the diagnostic.