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Glycosphingolipids in congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG)

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a large family of rare disorders affecting the different glycosylation pathways. Defective glycosylation can affect any organ, with varying symptoms among the different CDG. Even between individuals with the same CDG there is quite variable severity. Associating specific symptoms to deficiencies of certain glycoproteins or glycolipids is thus a challenging task. In this review, we focus on the glycosphingolipid (GSL) synthesis pathway, which is still rather unexplored in the context of CDG, and outline the functions of the main GSLs, including gangliosides, and their role in the central nervous system.