Mutations in genes encoding molecular chaperones can lead to chaperonopathies, but none have so far been identified causing congenital disorders of glycosylation. Here we identified two maternal half-brothers with a novel chaperonopathy, causing impaired protein O-glycosylation. The patients have a decreased activity of T-synthase (C1GALT1), an enzyme that exclusively synthesizes the T-antigen, a ubiquitous O-glycan core structure and precursor for all extended O-glycans. The T-synthase function is dependent on its specific molecular chaperone Cosmc, which is encoded by X-chromosomal C1GALT1C1. Both patients carry the hemizygous variant c.59C>A (p.Ala20Asp; A20D-Cosmc) in C1GALT1C1. […] These results demonstrate that the A20D-Cosmc mutation defines a novel O-glycan chaperonopathy and causes the altered O-glycosylation status in these patients.