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Genome and RNA sequencing were essential to reveal cryptic intronic variants associated to defective ATP6AP1 mRNA processing

The diagnosis of Mendelian disorders has notably advanced with integration of whole exome and genome sequencing (WES and WGS) in clinical practice. However, challenges in variant interpretation and uncovered variants by WES still leave a substantial percentage of patients undiagnosed. In this context, integrating RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) improves diagnostic workflows, particularly for WES inconclusive cases. Additionally, functional studies are often necessary to elucidate the impact of prioritized variants on gene expression and protein function. Our study focused on three unrelated male patients (P1-P3) with ATP6AP1-CDG (congenital disorder of glycosylation), presenting with intellectual disability and varying degrees of hepatopathy, glycosylation defects, and an initially inconclusive diagnosis through WES.