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GDP-Mannose Pyrophosphorylase B ( GMPPB)-Related Disorders

GDP-mannose pyrophosphorylase B (GMPPB) is a cytoplasmic protein that catalyzes the formation of GDP-mannose. Impaired GMPPB function reduces the amount of GDP-mannose available for the O-mannosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) and ultimately leads to disruptions of the link between α-DG and extracellular proteins, hence dystroglycanopathy. GMPPB-related disorders are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and caused by mutations in either a homozygous or compound heterozygous state. The clinical spectrum of GMPPB-related disorders spans from severe congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) with brain and eye abnormalities to mild forms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) to recurrent rhabdomyolysis without overt muscle weakness. GMPPB mutations can also lead to the defect of neuromuscular transmission and congenital myasthenic syndrome due to altered glycosylation of the acetylcholine receptor subunits and other synaptic proteins. Such impairment of neuromuscular transmission is a unique feature of GMPPB-related disorders among dystroglycanopathies.