Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are inherited metabolic diseases that affect the synthesis of glycoconjugates. Defects in mucin-type O-glycosylation occur independently or in combination with N-glycosylation disorders, and the profiling of the O-glycans of apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII) by mass spectrometry (MS) can be used to support a diagnosis. The biomarkers are site occupancy and sialylation levels, which are indicated by the content of non-glycosylated apoCIII0a isoform and by the ratio of monosialylated apoCIII1 to disialylated apoCIII2 isoforms, respectively. In this report, electrospray ionization (ESI) quadrupole MS of apoCIII was used to identify these biomarkers. […] Finally, a reference range of diagnostic biomarkers and mass spectra of apoCIII obtained from patients with SLC35A1-, TRAPPC11-, and ATP6V0A2-CDG are presented.