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Dystonia Due to GM3 Synthase Deficiency

Gangliosides are expressed in neuronal membranes, and play roles in neuronal differentiation and cell regulation during brain development. The ST3GAL5 gene encodes the enzyme GM3 synthase, and its deficiency causes a rare condition described to cause refractory epilepsy, profound intellectual disability, quadriplegia, choreoathetosis, and pigmentary skin changes. GM3 synthase deficiency is rarely reported to cause dystonia. We report five cases of GM3 synthase deficiency involving a dystonic phenotype.