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Coupled deglycosylation-ubiquitination cascade in regulating PD-1 degradation by MDM2

Posttranslational modifications represent a key step in modulating programmed death-1 (PD-1) functions, but the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely defined. Here, we report crosstalk between deglycosylation and ubiquitination in regulating PD-1 stability. We show that the removal of N-linked glycosylation is a prerequisite for efficient PD-1 ubiquitination and degradation. Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) is identified as an E3 ligase of deglycosylated PD-1. In addition, the presence of MDM2 facilitates glycosylated PD-1 interaction with glycosidase NGLY1 and promotes subsequent NGLY1-catalyzed PD-1 deglycosylation.