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Congenital diaphragmatic hernia in siblings with PIGA-related congenital disorder of glycosylation

There are over 150 proteins involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein biosynthesis, a class within the larger category of congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Pathogenic variants identified in phosphatidylinositol glycan class A protein (PIGA) are associated with X-linked PIGA-CDG, a GPI-anchor defect. The disease has primarily been characterized by hypotonia, epilepsy, and global developmental delay; however, only 89 known cases are reported, so the phenotypic spectrum has likely not yet been fully delineated. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) has been reported in patients with various GPI-anchor related defects but has only been described in one prior individual with PIGA-CDG. Here, we describe the second and third reported cases of CDH in two brothers with PIGA-CDG caused by a pathogenic missense variant in PIGA: c.355C > T, p.R119W.