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Clinical and biochemical footprints of inherited metabolic diseases. XII. Immunological defects

Immunological problems are increasingly acknowledged manifestations in many inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs), ranging from exaggerated inflammation, autoimmunity and abnormal cell counts to recurrent microbial infections. A subgroup of IMDs, the congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), includes CDG types that are even classified as primary immunodeficiencies. Here, we reviewed the list of metabolic disorders reported to be associated with various immunological defects and identified 171 IMDs accompanied by immunological manifestations.