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Clinical and biochemical footprints of congenital disorders of glycosylation: Proposed nosology

We have identified 200 congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) caused by 189 different gene defects and have proposed a classification system for CDG based on the mode of action. This classification includes 8 categories: 1. Disorders of monosaccharide synthesis and interconversion, 2. Disorders of nucleotide sugar synthesis and transport, 3. Disorders of N-linked protein glycosylation, 4. Disorders of O-linked protein glycosylation, 5. Disorders of lipid glycosylation, 6. Disorders of vesicular trafficking, 7. Disorders of multiple glycosylation pathways and 8. Disorders of glycoprotein/glycan degradation. Additionally, using information from IEMbase, we have described the clinical involvement of 19 organs and systems, as well as essential laboratory investigations for each type of CDG.