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Cardiomyopathy, an uncommon phenotype of congenital disorders of glycosylation: Recommendations for baseline screening and follow-up evaluation

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a continuously expanding group of monogenic disorders that disrupt glycoprotein and glycolipid biosynthesis, leading to multi-systemic manifestations. These disorders are categorized into various groups depending on which part of the glycosylation process is impaired. The cardiac manifestations in CDG can significantly differ, not only across different types but also among individuals with the same genetic cause of CDG. Cardiomyopathy is an important phenotype in CDG. The clinical manifestations and progression of cardiomyopathy in CDG patients have not been well characterized. This study aims to delineate common patterns of cardiomyopathy across a range of genetic causes of CDG and to propose baseline screening and follow-up evaluation for this patient population.