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Ataxia and Hypogonadism: a Review of the Associated Genes and Syndromes

The association of hypogonadism and cerebellar ataxia was first recognized in 1908 by Gordon Holmes. Since the seminal description, several heterogeneous phenotypes have been reported, differing for age at onset, associated features, and gonadotropins levels. In the last decade, the genetic bases of these disorders are being progressively uncovered. Here, we review the diseases associating ataxia and hypogonadism and the corresponding causative genes. In the first part of this study, we focus on clinical syndromes and genes (RNF216, STUB1, PNPLA6, AARS2, SIL1, SETX) predominantly associated with ataxia and hypogonadism as cardinal features. In the second part, we mention clinical syndromes and genes (POLR3A, CLPP, ERAL1, HARS, HSD17B4, LARS2, TWNK, POLG, ATM, WFS1, PMM2, FMR1) linked to complex phenotypes that include, among other features, ataxia and hypogonadism.