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Analysis of urinary oligosaccharide excretion patterns by UHPLC/HRAM mass spectrometry for screening of lysosomal storage disorders

Oligosaccharidoses, sphingolipidoses and mucolipidoses are lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) in which defective breakdown of glycan-side chains of glycosylated proteins and glycolipids leads to the accumulation of incompletely degraded oligosaccharides within lysosomes. In metabolic laboratories, these disorders are commonly diagnosed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) but more recently also mass spectrometry-based approaches have been published. To expand the possibilities to screen for these diseases, we developed an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with high-resolution accurate mass (HRAM) mass spectrometry (MS) screening platform, together with an open-source iterative bioinformatics pipeline.[…] Using this platform, we were able to identify α-mannosidosis, β-mannosidosis, α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency, sialidosis, galactosialidosis, fucosidosis, aspartylglucosaminuria, GM1 gangliosidosis, GM2 gangliosidosis (M. Sandhoff) and mucolipidosis II/III in patient samples. Aberrant urinary oligosaccharide excretions were also detected for other disorders, including NGLY1 congenital disorder of deglycosylation, sialic acid storage disease, MPS type IV B and GSD II (Pompe disease).