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ALG8-CDG: molecular and phenotypic expansion suggests clinical management guidelines

Congenital disorders of glycosylation are a continuously expanding group of monogenic disorders of glycoprotein and glycolipid glycan biosynthesis. These disorders mostly manifest with multi-system involvement. Individuals with ALG8-CDG commonly present with hypotonia, protein-losing enteropathy, and hepatic involvement. Here, we describe seven unreported individuals diagnosed with ALG8-CDG based on biochemical and molecular testing and we identify nine novel variants in ALG8, bringing the total to 26 individuals with ALG8-CDG in the medical literature. In addition to the typical multisystem involvement documented in ALG8-CDG, our cohort includes the two oldest patients reported and further expands the phenotype of ALG8-CDG to include stable intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder and other neuropsychiatric symptoms. We further expand the clinical features in a variety of organ systems including ocular, musculoskeletal, dermatologic, endocrine, and cardiac abnormalities and suggest a comprehensive evaluation and monitoring strategy to improve clinical management.