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A liposomal carbohydrate vaccine, adjuvanted with an NKT cell agonist, induces rapid and enhanced immune responses and antibody class switching

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are genetic diseases caused by gene defects in glycan biosynthesis pathways, and there is an increasing number of patients diagnosed with CDGs. Because CDGs show many different clinical symptoms, their accurate clinical diagnosis is challenging. Recently, we have shown that liposome nanoparticles bearing the ALG1-CDG and PMM2-CDG biomarkers (a tetrasaccharide: Neu5Ac-α2,6-Gal-β1,4-GlcNAc-β1,4-GlcNAc) stimulate a moderate immune response, while the generated antibodies show relatively weak affinity maturation. Thus, mature antibodies with class switching to IgG are desired to develop high-affinity antibodies that may be applied in medical applications. In the present study, a liposome-based vaccine platform carrying a chemoenzymatic synthesized phytanyl-linked tetrasaccharide biomarker was optimized.